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thoughts

Does Beijing Need to Slow Down ? – urban imagery vs true reality

 Just after the Olympics, Iron demand, steel output and oil imports all continued to increase at double digit annual rates. 1 million people are moving from the countryside to the cities each month, the oil prices which rose to almost 10 percent since 2008 which have led to shortages of fuel and electricity, and China stock markets have crashed over the past year. Shanghai stock exchange fell 53 percent at the end of 2008. Unsold automobile inventories rose 50 percent to a four year high in June 2008. Foster (2008:55).

1) introduction to Beijing

The writing begins with the introduction of the Beijing old city planning, development reality behind Olympic 2008, and situation after that. To describe Beijing in simple word is not easy. It has an amazing fabric, planning hierarchy principle based on class hierarchy principle. Rose also stated the city is practically a diagram of imperial china’s coherent and comprehensive idea statement… it is a succession of concentric quadrangles. Rose (2008:8). It’s a well integrated city with grid planning and courtyard housing which was built in 3 different dynasties.
The mountain Area southwest of Beijing was the home of Peking man some 500,000 years ago. In the 11th century B.C. became Jicheng (the city of Ji). It was the capital of the state of Yan of the Warring States period (475-221 B.C.). The city grew and in the mid 12th century. The Jin Dynasty made it its capital calling it Zhong Du (central capital). A century later it was made the Yuan dynasty capital of Kublai Khan, who named it Dadu (Great Capital). In the early 15th century the Ming dynasty rebuilt the city and named it Beijing (northern capital). Yongqing (1980:4).2954192396_8940331e5f_o


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Image1Figure 1 Beijing Historical Milestone Source Wu (1999:4)

Wu in his book Rehabilitating the old city of Beijing explained that Beijing is different than most of its predecessors, which perished at the end of the dynasties in which they were created, Beijing evolved through the last three dynasties of the Yuan, Ming, and Qing. It has become the ultimate example of ancient Chinese city planning. Liangyong (1999:3). Paris as a comparison with Beijing in figure 1 on the page 2 can be seen as a small portion of Beijing. While from 800 until 1800 Beijing hasn’t grown so drastically. Wu stated that Beijing was the largest city in the world in the period between AD 1450 and 1899 in terms of population size (except during the period between AD1650 and 1700, when Constantinople overtook it by a small margin. Liangyong (1999:4) It shows that Beijing has a rich and complex urban growth that is been existed for 2000 years.

In 1978, London times correspondent David Bonavia pictured Beijing as a monotonous socialist city, lacking in vice and urban life. Twenty-six years later, Chinese blues singer and writer Liu Sola pints the chaotic landscape of an alienated megalopolis… in the swirl of global consumerism. Broudehoux (2008:1). In 2008 when the Olympic was happening in Beijing, it consist of not only a city staging but it was a country staging to the world to show the world that China showing it’s economic power through Olympic in Beijing. The city has been going into huge changes in the Mao era and its progression on 1990s and The Olympics undoubtedly was a catalyst of urban growth in Beijing.

The structure of the writing is:
1)Introduction
2)Urban landscape developed pursuing Olympic 2008
3)Urban landscape After Olympic 2008
4)Conclusion

In This essay, the scope and time line is limited to before and after 2008. Chapter 1 is the introduction about Beijing. Chapter two is the chapter of to seek an answer about the image construction in Beijing pursuing Olympic 2008, and how the government role and commercial role take in charge of inventing architecture as agent of change of reshaping new image of Beijing. Chapter 3 seeks for current condition to know about recent situation. It is the chapter to understand the current Beijing’s economic situation and what is happening on government’s strategy on reshaping urban landscape. Statistics and literature study will be chosen as methods for achieving data. These 2 chapters develop specific points which provide the foundations upon which the hypothesis conclude. Chapter 4 is the conclusion which demonstrates summaries of the essay and provides the answer of the hypothesis above.

2) Urban landscape developed pursuing Olympic 2008

Rose as stated in the book called Solutions for a modern City, Arup in Beijing that Beijing is’ the greatest single work of man on the face of the earth”. The city is practically a diagram of imperial china’s coherent and comprehensive idea statement… it is a succession of concentric quadrangles. The basic unit of Beijing was the siheyuan, a four sided single storey residence for an extended family with an open courtyard at its centre… were packed neatly in a grid of streets aligned to the points of the compass… Forbidden city follows the same rules as the domestic architecture: courtyards within courtyards…’ Rose. S. (2008:8). It also has the orientation from north to south from the Gate of Eternal stability to the south, passing Tiananmen Square through centre of the Forbidden City, and beyond it to ceremonial bell and drum towers, in the north of the city. See figure 2arup

 

Figure 2 Arup’s project in Beijing (2008:9)

In 2008, Arup as a international engineering firm has been closely involved in many of the iconic and monumental projects commissioned to support the Olympics, the project consists of The national Aquatics centre, ‘Birds nest’ The Beijing National Stadium, The fencing hall/ National convention center, Beijing Capital International Airport’s new terminal 3, the new headquarters of China Central Television (CCTV) which is a triumphal arch and 70 storey skyscraper… the client called for an iconic building and this one characteristically mixes its understated metaphors,…’ Jencks, C (2007:60), others are China World Trade Center Phase 3 (tallest building in Beijing), Beijing South rail station (starting point for high speed rail services to the regions of Tianjing and Shang Hai), Beijing Parkview Green (largest sustainable architecture projects), Nokia china’s new headquarters (also known as the Nokia green building).Arup (2008:62-63).

The number of the projects is more than 9 that consisting multi billion projects. The number depict a reality at time of pursuing 2008 that it deals with a buildings, a public realm, and undoubtedly money. The 9 projects that are mentioned above is just a small portion of what’s really happening in Beijing.

Olympic as a catalyst of city’s growth in Beijing is not a new story, It happened in several cities and countries such as ‘… Rome, host of the 1960 Olympiad, where highway, airport, and urban landscape improvements were implemented in advance of the event…1964 Summer Olympic Games, Tokyo built two new underground rail lines, expanded its metropolitan highway network,… public housing, sewer infrastructure, and harbor facilities. Munich’s Olympic Village was designed to be a community for moderate-and low income residents after the games, and hosting the ill fated 1962 Games was the impetus for restoring the historic city center… Campanella (2008:125)
Beijing has been in a phase to exploit its material fabric of the city through architecture and urbanism. One of the official concepts of the Beijing organizing committee of the Olympic Games underscores the concept of showing china’s economic advancement through a high tech Olympics showcase. BOCOG stated the mission of Beijing Olympics that : ‘The Beijing 2008 Olympic Games Sponsorship Program shall abide by the Olympic Charter and adhere to the Olympic Ideals and the three concepts of ‘Green Olympic Games, High-tech Olympic Games and People’s Olympic Games’; assist in the promotion of the Olympic Movement, the promotion of the Olympic image and brand awareness of the Beijing Games and COC in and outside China; ensure financial sufficiency and stability, and reliable technical and service support for the staging and operation of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games; provide a unique Olympic marketing platform for both Chinese and foreign enterprises and encourage the broad participation of Chinese business entities to enhance their corporate image and brand awareness through their Olympic association, and provide quality services to sponsors and maximize the return on their investments while helping them forge long-term partnerships with the Olympic Movement in China.’ BOCOG (2009)
The government highlighted several keywords: green, high tech, and people. For a month in 2008 a city of 15 million permanent residents and 4 million from elsewhere in the country will receive more than 2.5 million visitors, including 17,600 athletes and officials and at least as many members of the press, Marving (2008:233). By 2008, there will be a total of 800 hotels with 1300000 rooms compared to 458 hotels with 84812 rooms in 2005 (Owen 2005, 13-14). 31 sport venues are mandated for Beijing and six more for the host cities of Qing Dao, Hong Kong, Tianjin, Shanghai, Shenyan, and Qinhuang Dao. 16 of this are completely new; all but three will be upgraded. Marving (2008:233).
The strategy of urbanism consist developing transportation, open space, and quality of the environment. The public transportation was improved, older buses and taxis have been replaced with new ones that run on compressed natural gas (CNG) or comply with the municipal vehicle emissions standards, enforced in the recent years by the city of Beijing. ‘Out of total operating fleet of 60,000 taxis and 19000 buses, more that 47,000 old taxis and 7,000 old diesel buses had been replaced or refitted by the end of 2006. New buses powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) were introduced to replace old buses: 2,795 CND buses are now running in Beijing.’UNEP (2007: 18). It also consist a transportation projects such as Tibet-Qinghay railway (The world’s highest) and the three gorges dam (the world’s largest). Marvin (2008:230).
Green space is also developed, ‘green coverage in Beijing, and has expanded to more that 50 percent of the city’s area. Beijing has created three different ecological zones in the mountain, plains and urban area to create a green shelter for the city. At the end of 2006, the three ecological zones were nearly completed, including a total of 20 natural reserves to protect forests, wild plants and animals, wetlands, and geological formations. ‘ UNEP (2007:20)
Beijing was doing well based on the assessment from UNEP Report in setting the environmental goals. During the candidature phase in 2000, Beijing set ambitious environmental goals to show the world its commitment to sustainable development. Beijing’s municipal Government and government of China outlined 20 key projects to improve Beijing’s environment, and an overall investment of US$ 6.6 million in 2003-2007 under the Beijing sustainable development plan. The project areas range from addressing air and water quality and waste management to including environmental considerations in new infrastructure development. According to official data, 4.13 million tons water were produced in 2006 in the eight central districts, while the overall processing capacity was close to 3.98 million tons water, giving a processing rate to 96.5 percent , UNEP(2007:14,20)

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Nevertheless the extinction of China’s dolphin also known as Baiji which usually lives in Yang Tze River underlined that at some points this development has a significant effect to the environment. The dolphin’s population had plummeted from about 400 in the late 1980s to less than 100 in the mid-1990s.The last search for the animal, in 1997, yielded 13 sightings. But none has seen them since 2004, Lovgren (2009). This extinction of the Baiji resulted from heavy pollution that happened in the yang Tze River.
Additionally, there are thousands of major commercial and government projects in China. It has the same completion day which is August 2008. With so many big projects ending at that month it may cause a down turn to global economy as the demand of construction will suddenly falls.

3) Urban Landscape after Olympic 2008

 
Beijing has already achieved many of its bid commitments, for example on waste water treatment, water source protection and waster management, and appears to be well on the way of fulfilling all of them. In UNEP’s view, this is an achievement in itself, especially considering that the organizing committee of the previous Olympic summer games failed to follow up their environmental promises. UNEP (2007:20)
Beijing has used the Olympic Games for a catalyst of the economy growth to show the power of China. It does come to the nationalism to the heart of the people if we come back to the previous mission of Beijing Olympic Games that has 3 mission: green, high tech, and people. The number of the statistic is worrying. To talk about the people, Yuann and inch underlined that China exports just about anything and everything, from products to outsourced services, therefore it can be said to drive the economy forward. It also becomes basic of the fundamental of the economic driver. The fundamental are the three primary growth drivers – trade, investment, and consumption. Yuann and Inch (2008:69). The first that has to be concerned by the government is the exports. China is heavily depends on the West market, but since the economic crisis hit in the middle of 2009. The numbers of the trade, investment, and consumption started to decline. Demand from Western economies is the slow but steady appreciation of the Yuan and China’s own efforts to raise interest rates and stem shipments of resource-intensive products like aluminum and steel have hit exporters. Looking at the figure 3.

index.8

Figure 3 Trade plunge in China’s economy Source from Chinability 2003

The foreign trade continued to drop sharply with a slight decrease of trade surplus. The total value of imports and exports for the first half was US$ 946.1 billion, down by 23.5 percent year-on-year. The value of exports was US$ 521.5 billion, down by 21.8 percent, and the value of imports was US$ 424.6 billion, down 25.4 percent. The trade surplus was US$ 96.9 billion, a decrease of US$ 2.1 billion over the same period last year.oil products

Figure 4 Price of Oil International Energy Agency (2009:42)

The second is energy prices. China’s oil imports as a proportion of its overall import bill rose to almost 12 percent in the spring from around 8 percent at the start of 2008. China’s predicament is made worse by an unholy mess of price caps and subsidies in its domestic energy markets, which have led to shortages of fuel and electricity. EIA (2009)

Just after the Olympics, Iron demand, steel output and oil imports all continued to increase at double digit annual rates. 1 million people are moving from the countryside to the cities each month, see figure 5. The oil prices which rose to almost 10 percent since 2008 which have led to shortages of fuel and electricity, and China stock markets have crashed over the past year. Shanghai stock exchange fell 53 percent at the end of 2008. Unsold automobile inventories rose 50 percent to a four year high in June 2008. Nevertheless China’s government are dealing a dilemma of focusing on fighting inflation which was running over 7 percent in June 2008 or they look forward to stimulate a slowing economy. Foster (2008:55).

The consistency of the government was trialed by the down turn in global financial crisis to maintain a good economic growth. The economic growth is what Chinese government offer to make euphoria of good life. Broudehoux stated that current approaches to city marketing and urban image construction in Beijing are highly unsustainable and may actually be counter productive, she then made a basic proposition that there are a clash between two visions of the city: the abstract space imagined by state and its planners, and the lived space experience on a daily basis by the masses. Broudehoux (2008: 244-245).

The number of vacant space started to soar, 500 million square feet of commercial real estate has been developed in Beijing since 2006, an amount larger than all of the office space in Manhattan. In 2009,100 million square feet of office space is vacant — a 14-year supply if it filled up at the same rate as in the best years, 2004 through 2006, when about 7 million square feet a year was leased in Beijing. Demick (2009) Government is also spending money to the maintenance of the parks, According to a latest survey by the Horizon Group, one of China’s leading strategic researches and consultancy, China has invested about 150 billion Yuan (US$ 22 billion) in 2,500 theme parks across the country. 70 percent of them are not doing well now, and only 10 percent have paid back their initial investments.China daily(September 2009).

Conclusion

In reality, it’s true that urban image construction was instrumental in fostering urban growth. The urban image construction also carries positive long term effects as a vehicle for important transformations in Chinese society. It could act as a catalyst in promoting potential social change by provoking the creation of an urban public sphere.

I started my hypothesis from asking a simple question. Does Beijing need to slow down ? To answer this question is complex. China depends heavily on its exports. let me illustrate with a simple example. The immigration is about 1 million per month. People also need housing and job. The global crisis happened and the demand of the exports declining and there has been a down turn to China economic growth. Can Beijing slow down if the dream of the people is coming to Beijing to have a better life? If Beijing slows down would it show to the people that Beijing is declining? The government just doesn’t’ have any choice to slow down. One of the ways is to reduce the dependence to the exports. Another way is to reduce the migration to Beijing to slow down the urban growth of Beijing. The development always has positive and negative impacts. Nevertheless as Olympic is a catalyst of the urban development, it will increase the speed, scale, spectacle, sprawl, segregation, and on a final, hopeful note – sustainability Campanella (2008:281). I will end this essay with a picture of an old man sitting under a pine tree drawn by Ma Yuan consist of symbol of longetivity. Olympic is one of the miles stone that in the part of symbol longetivity for Beijing.

painting china

Paper in University Of New South Wales 2009, by author

Bilblio graphy

image 1 source from g’heyde’s photostream

Arup, 2008, ‘Solutions for a modern city Arup in Beijing’, Black dog, Italy, pp 62,63
BOCOG.2007. Beijing 2008 Olympic Marketing Plan Overview. The official Web Site of Beijing Olympic Games – Beijing 2008, One World one Dream, Updated August 24,2008 . Available at http://en.beijing2008.cn/bocog/sponsors/n214077622.shtml (accessed September 25, 2009).
Broudehoux,A.M. 2004,’The making and Selling of Post-Mao Beijing’,Routledge, London,pp 1, pp 244-245
Campanella, T. J.2008,’The concrete dragon : China’s urban revolution and what it means for the world’, Princeton Architectural Press , New York, pp 125,pp281
Chinadaily, 70 percent of theme parks in the red ,last updated: 2009-08-10 16:32, Available at
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2009-08/10/content_8550933.htm
(accessed September 25, 2009).
Demick, B. Beijing’s Olympic building boom becomes a bust Last updated February 22, 2009 available at
http://articles.latimes.com/2009/feb/22/world/fg-beijing-bust22
(accessed September 25, 2009).
Foster, K. 2008,’ A shared dilemma for Beijing and beltway policy makers,’ American Metal Market, Vol 117 issue 9, pp.55
IEA(International Energy Agency) Key status 2009, page 42, Available at http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2009/key_stats_2009.pdf
(accessed September 25, 2009).
Jencks,C. 2007, ‘Critical Modernism’, Wiley-Academy, Great Britain, pp 60
Lovgren,S.’ China’s Rare River Dolphin Now Extinct’ for National Geographic News
Last updated December 14, 2006 available at
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/12/061214-dolphin-extinct.html
(accessed September 25, 2009).
Marving,C. 2008,’All Under Heaven Megaspace in Beijing’, in Price,M.E., Dayan,D.2008,”Owning the Olympics’,Michiga press, Michigan, pp 230, 233
Rose, S.’ Solutions for a modern city’ in Arup, 2008, Solutions for a modern city Arup in Beijing’, Black dog, Italy, pp 8, 9
Liangyong, W. 1999, ‘Rehabilitating the old city of Beijing: a project in the Ju’er Hutong neighbourhood’, UBC Press, Vancouver, pp3,4
UNEP (United Nations Programmes )environmental assessment report 2008, updated September 2008. pp 14, 20 Available at http://www.unep.org/Documents. Multilingual/Default.asp? DocumentID=519&ArticleID=5687&l=en (accessed September 20,2009)
Yuann, J.K., Inch,J., ‘Supertrends of Future China’, World Publishing, Singapore, pp 69
Yongqing, Z. 1980, ‘fifteen cities in China’, China reconstructs, Beijing, pp 4

 

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primary thoughts

Shinkenchiku Residential Competition 2008

22 October 2009

A vision for Moving to the sky

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DAILY primary

The Professor and the Mayonaisse Jar

When things in your life seem almost too much to handle,
When 24 hours in a day is not enough,
Remember this story about the mayonnaise jar and 2 cups of coffee.

coffee

This story reminds me to my professor in uni, the aim of the story is really inspiring, let me share again with you. Here we are

A professor stood before his philosophy class and had some items in front of him. When the class began, wordlessly, he picked up a very large and empty mayonnaise jar and proceeded to fill it with golf balls. He then asked the students, if the jar was full. They agreed that it was.

The professor then picked up a box of pebbles and poured them into the jar. He shook the jar lightly.  The pebbles rolled into the open areas between the golf balls. He then asked the students again if the jar was full.. They agreed it was.

The professor next picked up a box of sand and poured it into the jar. Of course, the sand filled up everything else.  He asked once more if the jar was full. The students responded with an unanimous ‘yes.’

The professor then produced two cups of coffee from under the table and poured the entire contents into the jar, effectively filling the empty space between the sand. The students laughed.

‘Now,’ said the professor, as the laughter subsided, ‘I want you to recognize that this jar represents your life. The golf balls are the important things – God, family, children, health, friends, and favorite passions – Things that if everything else was lost and only they remained. Your life would still be full. The pebbles are the other things that matter like your job, house, and car. The sand is everything else — The small stuff.

‘If you put the sand into the jar first,’ he continued, ‘there is no room for the pebbles or the golf balls.

The same goes for life.

If you spend all your time and energy on the small stuff, you will never have room for the things that are important to you.

So…
Pay attention to the things that are critical to your happiness.
Play with your children.
Take time to get medical checkups.
Take your partner out to dinner.

There will always be time to clean the house and fix the disposal.’Take care of the golf balls first —  The things that really matter.Set your priorities. The rest is just sand.’

One of the students raised her hand and inquired what the coffee represented.
The professor smiled.  ‘I’m glad you asked’.
It just goes to show you that no matter how full your life may seem, there’s always room for a couple of cups of coffee with a friend.’
“and this inspiring story made me start my Mayonaisse Jar”

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DAILY primary

The Daffodil Principle by Jaroldeen Edwards

daffodil3

“There is a garden in every childhood,
an enchanted place
where colors are brighter, the air softer,
and the morning more fragrant than ever.”
~ Elizabeth Lawrence

Several times my daughter had telephoned to say, “Mother, you must come to see the daffodils before they are over.” I wanted to go, but it was a two-hour drive from Laguna to Lake Arrowhead “I will come next Tuesday”, I promised a little reluctantly on her third call. Next Tuesday dawned cold and rainy. Still, I had promised, and reluctantly I drove there. When I finally walked into Carolyn’s house I was welcomed by the joyful sounds of happy children. I delightedly hugged and greeted my grandchildren. “Forget the daffodils, Carolyn! The road is invisible in these clouds and fog, and there is nothing in the world except you and the children that I want to see badly enough to drive another inch!” My daughter smiled calmly and said, “We drive in this all the time, Mother.” “Well, you won’t get me back on the road until it clears, and then I’m heading for home!” I assured her. “But first we’re going to see the daffodils. It’s just a few blocks,” Carolyn said. “I’ll drive. I’m used to this.” “Carolyn,” I said sternly, “Please turn around.” “It’s all right, Mother, I promise. You will never forgive yourself if you miss this experience.”

After about twenty minutes, we turned onto a small gravel road and I saw a small church. On the far side of the church, I saw a hand lettered sign with an arrow that read, “Daffodil Garden .” We got out of the car, each took a child’s hand, and I followed Carolyn down the path. Then, as we turned a corner, I looked up and gasped. Before me lay the most glorious sight.

daffodil2

It looked as though someone had taken a great vat of gold and poured it over the mountain and its surrounding slopes. The flowers were planted in majestic, swirling patterns, great ribbons and swaths of deep orange, creamy white, lemon yellow, salmon pink, and saffron and butter yellow. Each different colored variety was planted in large groups so that it swirled and flowed like its own river with its own unique hue. There were five acres of flowers. “Who did this?” I asked Carolyn. “Just one woman,”

Carolyn answered. “She lives on the property. That’s her home.” Carolyn pointed to a well-kept A-frame house, small and modestly sitting in the midst of all that glory. We walked up to the house. On the patio, we saw a poster. “Answers to the Questions I Know You Are Asking”, was the headline. The first answer was a simple one. “50,000 bulbs,” it read. The second answer was, “One at a time, by one woman. Two hands, two feet, and one brain.” The third answer was, “Began in 1958.”

For me, that moment was a life-changing experience. I thought of this woman whom I had never met, who, more than forty years before, had begun, one bulb at a time, to bring her vision of beauty and joy to an obscure mountaintop. Planting one bulb at a time, year after year, this unknown woman had forever changed the world in which she lived. One day at a time, she had created something of extraordinary magnificence, beauty, and inspiration. The principle her daffodil garden taught is one of the greatest principles of celebration. That is, learning to move toward our goals and desires one step at a time – often just one baby-step at time – and learning to love the doing, learning to use the accumulation of time.

When we multiply tiny pieces of time with small increments of daily effort, we too will find we can accomplish magnificent things. We can change the world . “It makes me sad in a way,” I admitted to Carolyn. “What might I have accomplished if I had thought of a wonderful goal thirty-five or forty years ago and had worked away at it ‘one bulb at a time’ through all those years? Just think what I might have been able to achieve!” My daughter summed up the message of the day in her usual direct way. “Start tomorrow,” she said. She was right. It’s so pointless to think of the lost hours of yesterdays. The way to make learning a lesson of celebration instead of a cause for regret is to only ask, “How can I put this to use today?”

Use the Daffodil Principle. S t o p  w a i t i n g …..

Dance like you have all of the time with you, * hold your breath and stay focussed

turkey dance (3)

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primary

1-Introduction to Urban Design

The beginning of knowledge is the discovery of something we do not understand, Frank Herbert

Aerial_london_2_resize

This writing is the result of my  experience in urban design studio of University of New South Wales. This section is made in the purpose of sharing urban design and to show clearly what we’ve learn t so far. It  explains urban design in term of ‘what and ‘how, generally it is also about what urban design is, and how to implement urban design. We in UNSW, are taught that we have to know what we are talking about, to be thoughtful urban designer.

Design Learning

“We must think 50 years ahead and design backwards” Raghavendra Rathore

me-design-reference

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primary

2-What is Urban Design ?

Just definitions either prevent or put an end to a dispute, Nathaniel Emmons
La Ramblas Sketch

Sketch of Las Ramblas by the author for Urban Design Studio of The university of New South Wales

Experiencing Urban Design

What is urban design? I remember the time when I was still an undergraduate student of Institute Technology of Bandung. I knew that if people talked about city, they must talk about urban design. My personal experience began at the time when Professor Mohammad Danisworo was talking about urban design of Jakarta and then first I know it must be something about city, he said that urban design is generally a link between architecture and urban planning. While in the book, Urban Design A typology of Procedures and Products, Professor Jon Lang argued that there was confusion about the definition of what urban design is. Some people called Urban Design a discipline and the he called urban design a process. I was taught by Professor Jon Lang that we should be clear about what we are talking so I’ll start with definitions that came up from time to time.

Urban Design by Lewis Wirth

Lewis Wirth first wrote urban design in his paper ‘Urbanism as a way of life’ in 1938

Urban Design by Alexander Cuthbert

Alexander Cuthbert wrote in his book The form of the cities that

Urban Design is a discipline where, almost without exception, its major’ theorists’ have failed to engage with any substantial origins in the cognate disciples of economics , social and political science, psychology , geography or the humanities’

He later explained that there are papers which called definitions of urban design by Alan Rowley 1994 and one which titled the same by David Gosling’s 1984, Which argue that is urban design a discipline.

Cuthbert stated:

In his paper, Gosling has adopted a wholly architectural perspective, as if only architects had any right to define the discipline. While it may seem unfair to critise this paper, now twenty years old, it remains significant precisely because it represents the most powerful and enduring ideologies still dominating the field of urban design.

Urban Design by Llewellyn-Davies

There was definition from Llewellyn-davies which was:

Urban design draws together many strands of place-making, environmental responsibility, social equity and economic viability; for example – into the creation of places of beauty and identity. Urban design is derived from but transcends related matters such as planning and transportation policy, architectural design, development economics, landscape and engineering. It draws these and other strands together. In summary, urban design is about creating vision and the deploying of the skills and resources to realize that vision (Llewellyn-davies; 2000:12)

Urban Design by Jon Lang

Jon Lang made a clear definition of urban design in his book, he stated almost all definitions of urban design state that it has something to do with the public realm (or the public domain or with public space) and the elements that define it. (Lang, 2005:6)

The broad goal of urban design is to provide opportunities, behavioural and aesthetic, for all the citizens and visitors to a city or one of its precincts. (Lang, 2005:20)

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Susan Boyle “the genuine lady”

“You can only become truly accomplished at something you love. Don’t make money your goal. Instead, pursue the things you love doing, and then do them so well that people can’t take their eyes of you.” – Maya Angelou

Check here “http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wnmbJzH93NU”

Susan showed how we can reach our dream that if you wanna do it, you can. I still remember when last time I watched Les Miserables musical performance in London. It was such great performance with love, honesty, and honour. This song is extra ordinary and touched every body.

Her voice is amazing. Her genuinity is the most amazing..

“Les Miserables”
There was a time, when n were kind
And their voices were soft
And their words were inviting
There was a time, when love was blind
And the world was a song
And the song was exciting
There was a time it all went wrong
I dreamed a dream in time gone by
When hope was high and life worth living
I dreamed that love would never die
I dreamed that God would be forgiving
Then I was young and unafraid
And dreams were made and used and wasted
There was no ransom to be paid
No song unsung, no wine untasted
But the tigers come at night
With their voices soft as thunder
As they turn your hope apart
As they turn your dreams to shame
He slept a summer by my side
He filled my dreams with endless wonder
He took my childhood in his stride
But he was gone when autumn came
And still I dream he’d come to me
That we would live the years together
But there are dreams that cannot be
And there are storms we cannot weather
I had a dream my life would be
So different from the hell I’m living
So different now from what it seemed
Now life has killed the dream I dreamed
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primary

“ Parametric Modelling “ di dalam arsitektur

Zaha Hadid, Thames Gateway regeneration corridor to the east of Londonzaha_hadid

about

Tulisan – tulisan ini untuk berbagi mengenai intuisi dan logika

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